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A. Glenn Crothers

“A major contribution to our understanding of the American South and the history of American religion and reform.”—Dee E. Andrews, author of The Methodists and Revolutionary America, 1760–1800“A model study of an antislavery, reformist minority trying to find its place in the Antebellum South.”—Thomas D. Hamm, author of The Transformation of American Quakerism: Orthodox Friends, 1800–1907This examination of a Quaker community in northern Virginia, between its first settlement in 1730 and the end of the Civil War, explores how an antislavery, pacifist, and equalitarian religious minority maintained its ideals and campaigned for social justice in a society that violated those values on a daily basis. By tracing the evolution of white Virginians’ attitudes toward the Quaker community, Glenn Crothers exposes the increasing hostility Quakers faced as the sectional crisis deepened, revealing how a border region like northern Virginia looked increasingly to the Deep South for its cultural values and social and economic ties. Although this is an examination of a small community over time, the work deals with larger historical issues, such as how religious values are formed and evolve among a group and how these beliefs shape behavior even in the face of increasing hostility and isolation. As one of the most thorough studies of a pre–Civil War southern religious community of any kind, Quakers Living in the Lion’s Mouth provides a fresh understanding of the diversity of southern culture as well as the diversity of viewpoints among anti-slavery activists.
$11.67 (USD)
Publisher: University Press of Florida
Release date: 2012
Format: PDF
Size: 6.27 MB
Language: English
Pages: 380
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You are here: Type System Enhancements > Optional Members

Optional Members

In a structure type, an optional member is a member that an application can decide to send or not as part of every published sample.

A subscribing application can determine if the publishing application sent an optional member or not. Note that this is different from getting a default value for a non-optional member that did not exist in the published type (see example in Type Safety and System Evolution ), optional members can be explicitly unset.

Using optional members in your types can be useful if you want to reduce bandwidth usage— Connext DDS will not send unset optional members on the wire. They are especially useful for designing large sparse types where only a small subset of the data is updated on every write.

This section explains how to define optional members in your types in IDL, XML and XSD and how to use them in applications written in C, C++, Java and in applications that use the DynamicData API. It also describes how optional members affect SQL content filters.

The // @Optional annotation allows you to declare a struct member as optional (see Table 2 Declaring Optional Members ). If you do not apply this annotation, members are considered non-optional.

In XSD, to declare a member optional, set the minOccurs attribute to “0” instead of “1”.

Key members cannot be optional.

Note: To specify both the “@ID” and “@Optional” annotations, they must be on separate lines:

This section describes how to use optional members in code generated for C/C++ and Java and with DynamicData API and SQL filters.

An optional member of type T in a DDS type maps to a pointer-to-T member in a C and C++ struct. Both optional and non-optional strings map to char * .

For example, consider the following IDL type:

This type maps to this C or C++ structure:

An optional member is set when it points to a valid value and is unset when it is NULL. By default, when you create a data sample all optional members are NULL. The TypeSupport API includes the following operations that allow changing that behavior:

Set alloc_params.allocate_optional_members to true if you want to have all optional members allocated and initialized to default values.

To allocate or release specific optional members, use the following functions:

You can also make an optional member point to an existing variable as long as you set it to NULL before deleting the sample.

The following C++ code shows several examples of how to set and unset optional members when writing samples (note: error checking has been omitted for simplicity):

If the blockage is not promptly addressed, the resulting damage may become irreparable. Sharp objects may slice or puncture the bowel, and obstruction may interfere with blood flow to the organs and cause bowel tissue to die. Peritonitis is the result in either case and usually kills the victim.

Once located, the object is removed. The veterinarian can sometimes do this with an endoscope down the puppy’s throat or the other direction up through his rectum, or with surgery. Any internal damage is repaired. If surgery can correct the problem before peritonitis sets in, most puppies fully recover. Should tissue die, the damaged sections of the intestine may be removed, and the living portions of bowel reattached; these puppies typically have a good prognosis.

Most puppies outgrow indiscriminate munching. The best course is preventing your dog from swallowing dangerous items. Choosedog-safe toysthat can’t be chewed into tiny pieces, and supervise object play. Anything a child would put in his mouth is fair game for puppies. Puppy-proof your home by thinking like your dog, so that you won’t be caught off guard when your dog eats the rubber bumpers off the door stops.

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